# CSS - Cascading Style Sheets


Let's make web beautyful!

~ Anonymous

# Useful properties

  1. box-sizing: border-box
  2. :active selector
  3. CSS flexbox layout model
  4. text-shadow: -2px -2px rgb(60, 179, 113, 80%)
    1. Animatable,
    2. create craxy party effects, banners, sale box
  5. Use svg in list-style-image
  6. CSS Units
  7. background-image: linear-gradient(angle, color-stop1, color-stop2);
  8. CSS transforms
    1. matrix(scaleX(),skewY(),skewX(),scaleY(),translateX(),translateY())
  9. css transitions
  10. cubic-bezier(n,n,n,n) - lets you define your own values in a cubic-bezier function
  11. css image filters
  12. native css variables
  13. Difference between css transition | transform | animation?
    1. CSS transitions allows you to change property values smoothly, over a given duration.
    2. transition require a trigger
    3. and has a start state and end state
      1. use animation is there are more in between states
  14. Pseudo classes and Pesudo ELements
Pseudo Example
PseudoClass p:hover, :first-child
PseudoElements ::before, ::after

# Typography

# Css Features

In css, everything is a Rectangle

~ CSS Box Model
  • Gap b/w print desing and web design has reduced
  • CSS Shapes
  • CSS Blend Mode - color compositing and blending
  • CSS FIlters 11 filter effects


Bounding Box Mode (SVG) CSS Box Model

# SVG Filters


How you can re-create photoshop stuff in browser?

  • SVG is 2 decades old
  • CSS filters are derieved from SVG filters, but more optimized for use
  • Horizontal blur = Motion blur effect
  • Filters requires a source image to work on. Else its blank
  • Filter is a series of graphic manupulation operations <feGuassianBlur ...>
  • Apply texture to images and text to recreate effects like smoke, fire, clouds, storms, water etc.
  • Filters are only applied to a region
<svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" width="4in" height="3in">
    <filter id="myFilter">
      <!-- Definition of filter goes here -->

  <text style="filter:url(#myFilter)">a filter applied</text>
  <!-- or -->
  <image xlink:href="..." width="100%" height="100%" filter="url(#myFilter)"></image>
Displaccement Map

is a image whose color information is used to distort the content of another

# Photoshop

  1. Desaturate the image
  2. Reduec the amount of detail in it by blurring it by 1px
  3. Save it as a displacement map
  4. Create text, apply distortion filter using the image as a displacement map
  5. Reuse the original image as a background behind the text
  6. Refine the effect more by adding slight transparency to the text and blending it with bg image


  1. Fill the filter region with image that will be used as a texture (using feImage)
  2. Desaturate the image (using feColorMatrix value="saturate")
  3. Apply 1px Guassian Blur using feGaussianBlur
  4. Use image to distort text with feDisplacementMap
  5. Blend text into background feBlend and apply translucent effect to decrease opacity feComponentTransfer
  6. Display both layers by merging 2 layers feMerge
Duo Tone Effect

<feComponentTransfer with type="table"

Why use browser based filter when you can easily use photoshop to do image manupulation stuff?

Image manupulation on browser makese sense at scale when we have thousands of images.

Use same filter over entire website. Update Filter overtime, instead of doing it manually per image in PS

  1. Resolution Independent
  2. Easier and faster changes/tweaks at scale
  3. Content is editable ans dynamic
  4. Effects are animatable, not possible with static images

# Effects

  1. Drop Shadow
    1. SVG Filter chaning
    2. feOffset in="sourceAplha"
    3. feGaussianBlur
    4. Make shadown translucent
  2. Image Morphing - shape transformation effects, pixel level operation
    1. Erosion - thinning, shrinking
    2. Dilation - Thickening, expanding
    3. Preserve the thickness of the text and enable outline
  3. Knock Out
    1. feMorphology
    2. feComposite
  4. Poster Effect - reducing the number of colors in an image
    1. range of intensites would end up being 1
  5. Create animations from textures
    1. feTurbulance
  6. Squiggly Text
  7. Light Sources
    1. feDistantLight
    2. fePointLight
    3. feSpotLight
    4. increase the number of details - octaves usually 5 is max, after that we cannot detect change
  8. Bokeh Effect
    1. Blurr produced in out of focus ares


How to use image of a texture and use it to change the shape and texture of other elements?

How to create SVG textures?

  • Textures
  • Random Noise
  • Lighting effects

# CSS-3 Placement and Positioning System

How to palce elements on browser like a css god!

~ Anonymous

How CSS-3 solves position the element properly on various resolution?

  1. Box Model, Position System
    1. static
    2. relative
    3. fixed
    4. absolute
    5. sticky
  2. CSS Flex Model - 1 dimensional
  3. CSS Layout - 2 dimensional

CSS Positioning system

When on earth do we use each of these?

Parent relative and its children as absolute is a common practise.

A brief history of CSS until 2016

transform: rotate(2deg)

# vue

# CSS animations

How do we animate objets (reactangles) on browser?

Browser is my canvas. Browser exposes APIs to animate objects. What are those APIs?

  1. ⭐️ CSS Animation Specification
    1. best aapproach
  2. SVG SIML Specification
    1. No IE support for <animate… you have to use a polyfill library like fakeSMIL - which is not the end of the world. Also css3 transforms are GPU accelerated on iOS mobile and chrome for mobile (for the most part) so they tend to be smoother.
    2. SVG's own animation API (SMIL) is not well-supported,
  3. Use Javascript to dynamically adjest css properties of element

How to ensure backward portability?

${1:selector} {
   animation-name: $0

Some cool effects

# Display

.storegrid {
  width: 95%;
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: 3fr 1fr;
  grid-template-rows: 1fr;
  grid-column-gap: 40px;
  grid-row-gap: 0px;

Mediaqueries on Grid

@media (max-width: 600px) {
  aside {
    width: 100% !important;
    margin-bottom: 10px !important;

  .content {
    width: 100% !important;
    grid-template-columns: 1fr !important;

@media (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 900px) {
  .content {
    grid-template-columns: repeat(2, 1fr) !important;

@media screen and (max-width: 550px) {
  .storegrid {
    width: 90%;
    display: grid;
    grid-template-columns: 2fr 1fr;
    grid-template-rows: 1fr;
    grid-column-gap: 10px;

# Grid template area

grid-area: 1 / 1 / 5 / 4;  //shorthand
    grid-row-start: 1;
    grid-column-start: 1;
    grid-row-end: 5;
    grid-column-end: 4;

Generate beauty text overlay graphics using grid-css and text

# Image lightbox effect

Click on image to create a full screen preview and close it when click anywhere outside of image

  • Grab images from uplash
  • <script defer src="..."> attribute to defer loading the script until HTML has been parsed.
    • same effect as adding script to the end of the page.
  • grid elements can overflow
  • Add preview element to page, show it only when a image is clicked
    • click on preview element (created above) to deactivate (CSS) it
    • remove preview only when clicked outside the image element, not on the image element
    • preview element should contain only 1 image child
      • fix - removeAll then add one child

# CSS Selectors

How to aassign properties to HTML DOM elements?

Levels of Selectors

CSS Selector Description
* Selects everything, every div, li everything
Element Type Selector div
Class and ID Selector . class # id Selector

# 🌀 Resources

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